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    Interview with Niko Waesche published on 25 November 1997.

    Interview with Carlos Mallorquín on 8 September 2000.

    Interview for Revue de la Régulation, published January 2008.

    Interview for Estudos Avançados (in Portuguese), published August 2008.

    Interview in Rosser, J Barkley, Holt, Richard P. F. and Colander, David (2010) European Economics at a Crossroads, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 132-47.

    Interview in Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, Autumn 2010.

    Interview in World Economics Association Newsletter, December 2012.

    Interview with Rethinking Economics, March 2014.

    Interview with Cambridge Review of International Affairs, June 2014.

    Extract from Who's Who in Economics (4th edn., Edward Elgar, 2003)


    I have always been interested in the big questions of how socio-economic systems work, and how individuals relate to economic institutions. These themes were present in my critical engagement with Marxism in the 1970s and reflected in my enduring interest in institutional and evolutionary economics since the early 1980s. Capitalism, Value and Exploitation (1982) reflects my early concern with Marxian and Sraffian value theory. The Democratic Economy (1984) exhibits an interest in the analysis of the production process and stressed the inevitability of mixed economies. Subsequent works showed a more explicit engagement with the ‘old’ institutional economics. Economics and Institutions (1988) is a critique of the core assumptions of neoclassical economics and an attempt to outline an alternative approach. This was followed by work on an institutionalist theory of economic growth. An interest in the role of metaphor in economics and the sources of creativity, combined with a concern about the fashionable but often ill-informed use of the ‘evolutionary’ label, led to the book Economics and Evolution (1993). Subsequent work has continued to address the history, methodology and conceptual foundations of institutional and evolutionary economics. Particular attention has been given to key institutions such as the firm, linking with Nelson--Winter type work and other evolutionary and ‘competence-based’ approaches. Economics and Utopia (1999) explored possible scenarios for a post-capitalist future and examined the implications of the learning economy. How Economics Forgot History (2001) examined the problem of historical specificity in economics, and the past contributions to this methodological issue by members of the German historical school and others. If I have made a contribution, then it is to add a little to our understanding of how economic institutions work, and to unearth some of the forgotten contributions of others to this project.